Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of cancer

A dividing lung cancer cell. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.

Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of cancer

Abstract Over the past years, our understanding of the pathogenesis of lung cancer has advanced impressively. Environmental carcinogens and a gene locus determining susceptibility have been identified.

The pathology of lung cancer has been classified into categories with major clinical implications. The cellular and molecular genetic changes underlying lung cancer have become better understood over the past 25 years, but the stepwise progression of respiratory epithelium from normal to neoplastic is not yet well demarcated, limiting abilities to advance early detection and chemoprevention.

The translation of improved understanding of dominant signal transduction pathways in lung cancer to rationally designed therapeutic strategies has had recent successes, demonstrating a proof of principle for targeted therapy in lung cancer.

Classification It is not used in calculation of time to progression or progression-free survival but is listed here as something that can be reported optionally or for use in clinical practice 1. Development of new soft tissue plasmacytomas or bone lesions 2.
Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesen... However, the role and mechanism of SASH1 in the invasion and metastasis of hepatocarcinoma are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of SASH1 in the invasion and metastasis of hepatocarcinoma.
Stem Cell Therapy for Liv... CRS is a challenging condition to treat, partly due to its multifaceted, poorly understood pathophysiology. Treatment goals include maintaining open drainage and decreasing inflammation while improving tissue integrity and limiting causative factors.

Improvement in overall patient outcomes has been stubbornly slow and will require concerted efforts. Etiology A century ago, one occupational cause of lung cancer was known.

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An association between lung cancer and work in the Schneeberg mines in Germany was described by Harting and Hesse in 2. Subsequently, high levels of radon gas were found in the mines and an etiologic connection between radioactive gas exposure and lung carcinogenesis was proposed early in the twentieth century.

Tobacco was used for centuries before the modern epidemic of lung cancer occurred. However, with the development of machines for the commercial production of cigarettes in the late nineteenth century, tobacco products became more widely and intensively used. Tobacco smoke was suspected as causing lung cancer as early as the late s, when physicians began seeing increasing numbers of patients with this heretofore rare disease and noted that nearly all were cigarette smokers.

Muller reported a case-control study implicating tobacco smoke in causing lung cancer in Germany inbut the message was largely lost as the medical community was distracted by the larger disaster of World War II, as reviewed by Muller and by Witschi 34.

Inseveral case-control studies were published, all showing an association between cigarette smoking and lung cancer 56. A number of studies have demonstrated that risk for lung cancer decreases with smoking cessation, most recently and elegantly described in the Lung Health Study, where the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in decreasing lung cancer deaths was demonstrated in a prospective, controlled trial 7.

Inthe German scientific consensus was that asbestos exposure caused lung cancer. Experiments performed by the asbestos industry showed that asbestos exposure caused lung tumors in mice, but were unpublished 8. InDoll published a landmark manuscript demonstrating a highly persuasive association between heavy asbestos exposure and lung cancer 9.

Similar to tobacco, there was a long delay between the documentation of the etiologic effect of asbestos in lung carcinogenesis and implementation of policies to protect the public.

Additional industrial and environmental exposures, including heavy metals and petrochemicals, causing lung cancer have been described. Viral causation of lung cancer has been intermittently considered.

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Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in sheep is transmitted by a retrovirus, but no studies in human lung cancer have supported a retroviral etiology There is recent evidence supporting human papilloma viruses as possibly contributing to lung cancer, especially in never-smokers from Pacific Rim countries 11 Different carcinogens give rise to specific mutations i.

Thus, sequence analysis of the mutational spectrum of target genes, such as p53, in different populations can be informative regarding the probable culprit carcinogen in that population. This approach to determining etiology has been termed molecular epidemiology or molecular archeology and has been instrumental in providing additional support for tobacco smoke as a major etiology of lung cancer 13 — A number of reports suggest increasing numbers of lung cancer cases in never-smokers, particularly females from Asia This is particularly alarming and mandates aggressive investigation, including both standard and molecular epidemiology, to determine if new etiologies for lung cancer are emerging.

Small cell lung cancer SCLC was first described as a tumor of the bronchus, as opposed to a round cell sarcoma, by Barnard in Azzopardi further refined the pathologic description in and Watson and Berg described some of the distinctive clinical features in 18 Although the subtypes of SCLC are not clinically useful in determining therapy, the recognition that mixed tumors containing two or more elements of SCLC, adenocarcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma has promoted the concept that the major forms of lung cancer are closely related, perhaps arising from a common stem cell.by Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon.

The traditional Chinese medical view of cancer etiology holds that there are several possible contributing factors, and that one of the principal causes is internal factors, namely emotions (see: Oriental perspectives on cancer and its treatment, and Emotions and health).

It has been reported that the crossover in breast cancer age incidence between African-American and Caucasian-American women is a relatively recent phenomenon that evolved over the s [].A sudden shift in age distribution is difficult to explain, making the accuracy of this observation dubious.

Arthritis of the knee, swelling of the wrists, neck and back pain *. Microbes in the human body According to a recent National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimate, 90% of cells in the human body are bacterial, fungal, or otherwise non-human.

Although many have concluded that bacteria surely enjoy a commensal relationship with their human hosts, only a fraction of the human microbiotahuman microbiomeHuman MicrobiomeHuman MicrobiomeHuman Microbiomehuman. Over the past years, our understanding of the pathogenesis of lung cancer has advanced impressively.

Environmental carcinogens and a gene locus determining susceptibility have been identified.

Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of cancer

The pathology of lung cancer has been classified into categories with major clinical implications. The. Disease and Treatment >Background >Etiology, Epidemiology and Pathophysiology >Evaluation and Diagnosis >Symptoms and Diagnosis >Staging >Prognosis >Definition of Responses >Treatment >Myeloma: Complications and Management >Links for Patients, Clinicians and Researchers >References Background.

Definition and Introduction. Multiple Myeloma (also known as Myeloma or .

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