In a new Poor Law was introduced. Some people welcomed it because they believed it would: Children who entered the workhouse would receive some schooling. In return for this care, all workhouse paupers would have to work for several hours each day.
His father, Alexander Pym, died a few months after John was born.
Pym attended Broadgates Hall now Pembroke CollegeOxford in and entered the Middle Temple inthough he was never called to the bar. This marriage established Pym as a member of the Rous circle, which in turn influenced the development of his strong Puritanism and fierce opposition to Catholicism and Arminianism.
In addition to managing his estates in Somerset, Pym obtained a post in the Exchequer as receiver of the King's revenue for Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Gloucestershire. Inhe was elected for Tavistock in Devon, which he represented in the first three Parliaments of the reign of Charles I.
He emerged as an outspoken enemy of the Roman Catholics and a firm supporter of those who opposed the King's arbitrary use of his powers. Pym was active in the demands for the impeachment of the Duke of Buckingham in andand supported the Petition of Right in Pym's abilities as a financier attracted the patronage of the Earl of Warwickwho employed him to manage his affairs and estate from The affairs of the Company brought Pym into contact with the Puritan magnates who were to become leaders of the Parliamentarians during the s, including Lord BrookeLord Saye and John Hampden.
Pym emerged as a leading Parliamentarian during the brief life of the Short Parliament King Charles wanted Parliament to grant him money for war against the Scots, but his opponents were unwilling to do so until their grievances in Church and State policy had been addressed.
On 17 April, Pym delivered a lengthy speech in which he summarised the nation's complaints. His skill lay in making his attack appear moderate rather than confrontational. At this stage, he did not demand that any of the King's ministers should be held responsible, but appealed to the House of Lords to join the Commons in searching out the causes and remedies of the nation's troubles.
His speech made a deep impression. Unable to get what he wanted, King Charles dissolved Parliament within a month of calling it. After the dissolution, Pym and his colleagues concentrated their efforts on forcing Charles to recall Parliament.
In collaboration with Oliver St John, Pym drafted the petition signed by twelve peers calling for redress of grievances and a new Parliament.
He travelled through the provinces with John Hampden, raising support and organising public opinion. When the Long Parliament was summoned in NovemberPym was the acknowledged leader of the political opposition to the King and his supporters.
Like other Puritans, he believed that King Charles' attempt to set up a despotic government during the s was associated with a Roman Catholic plot to destroy the Protestant faith in England. As a first step towards saving the nation's liberties and religion, Pym initiated the prosecution of the King's principal advisers, the Earl of Strafford and Archbishop Laud.
During March and AprilPym played a leading role in the impeachment proceedings that led to Strafford's execution on 12 May. This was followed by the abolition of the courts of High Commission, Star Chamber and other archaic institutions that had allowed King Charles to rule without Parliament.
Pym was persuaded to support the abolition of episcopacy because of the great influence of the bishops in upholding the King's arbitrary government.
Pym's greatest concern was that the King would try to use military force against Parliament. When the Irish Uprising erupted in Octobercontrol of the armed forces become a critical concern. Pym and his supporters realised that if the King raised an army against the Irish rebels, it could easily be used against Parliament.
The Grand Remonstrance of November was part of his strategy for enabling Parliament to gain control of the army by undermining confidence in the King and his ministers. Early in Januarythe King tried to win Pym over to the Royalist cause by offering to appoint him chancellor of the exchequer but Pym rejected the offer.
He was one of the Five Members regarded as the King's leading opponents in Parliament whom Charles tried to arrest on 4 January —with disastrous consequences for the Royalist cause.
While Charles and the royal family were forced to flee from London, "King Pym" and his supporters returned to Westminster in triumph. Civil War Politics Through the spring and early summer oftension between King and Parliament increased until an armed confrontation became inevitable.social reformer, and military leader, James Oglethorpe conceived of and implemented his plan to establish the colony of Georgia.
It was through his initiatives in England in that the British government authorized the establishment of its first new colony . In , a civil war broke out over who would rule England—Parliament or King Charles I.
The war ended with the beheading of the king. Shortly after Charles was executed, an English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes (–), wrote Leviathan, a defense of the absolute power of kings. They argued that the king was equally a king of England and a king of the colonies, but they insisted that the English Parliament had no more right to pass laws for the colonies than any colonial legislature had the right to pass laws for England.
But although relations between England and the colonies were often full of friction (as in , when Charles II revoked the Massachusetts Bay Colony’s charter as punishement for smuggling), the two sides never came to any real conflict.
The idea that the British royal family are ‘in bred’ relies on a number of serious misconceptions about what in-breeding is, how family marriages have been perceived in the past, and the genetic effects of cousins marrying. By the terms of the peace in October Charles I had to pay the Covenanter army £ a day until they left England.
There was no way Charles I could avoid asking Parliament for money now and he summoned another one for November This was to become one of the most important in English history - the Long Parliament.