Jeremy Bentham The origins of utilitarianism can be traced back as far as Epicurusbut, as a school of thought, it is credited to Jeremy Bentham who found that "nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure", then, from that moral insight, deriving the Rule of Utility: He defined the meaning of life as the " greatest happiness principle ". Friedrich Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world, and especially human existence, of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, and essential value; succinctly, nihilism is the process of "the devaluing of the highest values". To Martin Heideggernihilism is the movement whereby " being " is forgotten, and is transformed into value, in other words, the reduction of being to exchange value.
Jesus Christ, the Lord of our lives posted Jun 29,7: In his catechesis Pope Benedict continued his series on Christian prayer in the letters of Saint Paul, focusing on the Christological hymn in the Letter to the Philippians.
Man still wants to build the tower of Babel on his own to reach the heights of God, to be like God. Following his catechesis in Italian he greeted English speaking pilgrims present at the audience: I greet the pilgrimage groups from Nigeria, South Africa and Swaziland.
My greeting also goes to the many student groups present. Below a Vatican Radio translation of the general audience catechesis original in Italian Dear brothers and sisters, Our prayer is made, as we have seen in past Wednesdays, of silence and speech, of singing and gestures that involve the whole person: It is a characteristic that we find in Jewish prayer, especially in the Psalms.
Today I would like to talk about one of the oldest songs or hymns of the Christian tradition, which St. Paul presents to us in what is, in a sense, his spiritual testament: The Letter to the Philippians.
It is, in fact, a letter that the Apostle dictated while in prison, perhaps in Rome.
He feels close to death, because he says that his life will be poured out as a libation cf. Despite this situation of grave danger to his physical safety, St. Paul, throughout the text, expresses the joy of being a disciple of Christ, of being able to reach out to Him, to the point of no longer seeing his death as a loss but as gain.
In the last chapter of the Letter there is a strong invitation to joy, a fundamental characteristic of our being Christians and of our prayer. I shall say it again: But how can one rejoice in the face of an imminent death sentence?
From where, or rather, from whom does St. Paul draw the serenity, strength, courage to go to meet his martyrdom, and the shedding of his blood? This prayer begins with an exhortation: These feelings are presented in the following verses: It is not simply a case of following the example of Jesus, as a moral thing, but to involve all of our existence in our way of thinking and acting.
Prayer should lead to an ever deeper knowledge and union of love with the Lord, to be able to think, act and love like Him, in Him and for Him.
|Evolution of Happiness in Western Thought||It speaks of Abraham, Sarah, Moses, Gideon and others cf.|
Exercising this learning the sentiments of Jesus is the path of Christian life. Now I will briefly touch on some elements of this dense hymn that sums up the whole human and the divine journey of the Son of God, which encompasses all of human history: This hymn to Christ comes from his being "en morphe tou Theou," says the Greek text, that is, from being "in the form of God," or better in the condition of God.
Jesus, true God and true man, does not live his "being like God" to triumph or to impose his supremacy, he does not consider it a possession, a privilege, a precious treasure. Indeed, he "divested," emptied himself, taking on, as the Greek text says, the "morphe doulos ', the' form of a slave," human reality marked by suffering, poverty, death; he fully assimilated to mankind, except in sin, so as to behave as a servant dedicated to the service of others.
In this regard, Eusebius of Caesarea IV century said: He made his our humble diseases. He suffered and toiled for our sakes: Paul continues by outlining the "historical" framework in which this abasement of Jesus took place.
The Son of God truly became man and took on a journey in complete obedience and loyalty to the will of the Father, even to the supreme sacrifice of his life. Moreover, the Apostle specifies "unto death, even death on a cross. In Verrem, V, 64, In the Cross of Christ man is redeemed and the experience of Adam is overturned: Adam, created in the image and likeness of God, claimed to be like God on his own strengths, to replace God, and so lost the original dignity that had been bestowed on him.
Jesus, however, was in that condition but he lowered himself, he immersed himself in the human condition, with unswerving fidelity to the Father, to redeem Adam who is in us and restore the dignity he had lost.
The Fathers emphasize that He became obedient, restoring to human nature, through his humanity and obedience, what had been lost through the disobedience of Adam.
In prayer, in relationship with God, we open our mind and heart, to the will of the Holy Spirit to enter this same dynamic of life, as St. Cyril of Alexandria, whose feast we celebrate today, affirms: · The theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity furnish a strong basis for all other plombier-nemours.com cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance are the foundation of all moral virtues.
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George Rachiotis September 17, 41 9 K views. George Rachiotis September 17, Like Us On Facebook: joy of existence and happiness in the mind of the sick person making it easy for the him or plombier-nemours.com to continue in existence, operation, memory, etc.; last: a book that lives in my memory.
to maintain or support one's existence; provide for oneself: to live on one's income. to feed or subsist (usually followed by on or upon): to live on rice and plombier-nemours.com://plombier-nemours.com