Social biases

The inclination to see past events as being more predictable than they actually were; also called the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect. Humor effect That humorous items are more easily remembered than non-humorous ones, which might be explained by the distinctiveness of humor, the increased cognitive processing time to understand the humor, or the emotional arousal caused by the humor.

Social biases

Bandwagon effect — the tendency to do or believe things because many other people do or believe the same. Related to groupthinkcrowd psychologyherd behaviourand manias.

Congruence bias — the tendency to test hypotheses exclusively through direct testing, in contrast to tests of possible alternative hypotheses. Contrast effect — the enhancement or diminishment of a weight Social biases other measurement when compared with recently observed contrasting object.

Endowment effect — "the fact that people often demand much more to give up an object than they would be willing to pay to acquire it". Extreme aversion — most people will go to great lengths to avoid extremes. People are more likely to choose an option if it is the intermediate choice. Focusing effect — prediction bias occurring when people place too much importance on one aspect of an event; causes error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome.

Framing — drawing different conclusions from the same information, depending on how that information is presented. Hyperbolic discounting — the tendency for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs, the closer to the present both payoffs are.

Illusion of control — the tendency for human beings to believe they can control or at least influence outcomes that they clearly cannot. Impact bias — the tendency for people to overestimate the length or the intensity of the impact of future feeling states.

Information bias — the tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action. Irrational escalation — the tendency to make irrational decisions based upon rational decisions in the past or to justify actions already taken.

Loss aversion — "the disutility of giving up an object is greater than the utility associated with acquiring it". Neglect of probability — the tendency to completely disregard probability when making a decision under uncertainty.

Mere exposure effect — the tendency for people to express undue liking for things merely because they are familiar with them. Obsequiousness bias — the tendency to systematically alter responses in the direction they perceive desired by the investigator.

Omission bias — the tendency to judge harmful actions as worse, or less moralthan equally harmful omissions inactions. Outcome bias — the tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made. Planning fallacy — the tendency to underestimate task-completion times.

Pseudocertainty effect — the tendency to make risk-averse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes. Reactance — the urge to do the opposite of what someone wants you to do out of a need to resist a perceived attempt to constrain your freedom of choice.

Selective perception — the tendency for expectations to affect perception. Status quo bias — the tendency for people to like things to stay relatively the same see also Loss aversion and Endowment effect.

Unacceptability bias — questions that may embarrass or invade privacy are refused or evaded. Unit bias — the tendency to want to finish a given unit of a task or an item with strong effects on the consumption of food in particular Von Restorff effect — the tendency for an item that "stands out like a sore thumb" to be more likely to be remembered than other items.

Zero-risk bias — the preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk.Some of the cognitive biases on this graphic from Samantha Lee and Shana Lebowitz at Business Insider may sound pretty familiar.

You’ve probably heard of the “placebo effect” and. Social biases are considered a problem in society due to one group looking down on another person or group because that group feels they are better than the other.

The social influence that some groups have can generate common biases.

Social biases

The thirty-five chapters in this book describe various judgmental heuristics and the biases they produce, not only in laboratory experiments but in important social, medical, and political situations as well.

The AI Now Institute at New York University is an interdisciplinary research center dedicated to understanding the social implications of artificial intelligence. The Wisest One in the Room: How You Can Benefit from Social Psychology's Most Powerful Insights [Thomas Gilovich, Lee Ross] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Renowned psychologists describe the five most useful insights from social psychology that will help make you “wise”: wise about why we behave the way we do.

These prejudices are exhibited by all of us at some point, so whilst their elimination is arguably not possible, we should still aim to reduce our social biases.