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This discussion will focus on and assess the competing theories of De Facto, Plato, Hobbes, Rousseau and Locke, whose justification of the State is based on the notion of a social contract. Anarchism will also be examined as it opposes the other theories. These theories attempt to explain under what conditions citizens are politically obligated to the State in terms of law and liberty.
Territorial boundaries provide the State with exclusive jurisdiction or sovereignty. In Britain, where the coastline defines the territory, jurisdiction is extended to Northern Ireland and the Falkland Islands.
Therefore, authority is not necessarily confined to a particular area. Jones et al,p11 It has been traditionally accepted that there is a connection between eh State and sovereignty. By claiming a domination of legitimate force within defined boundaries, the exercising of a monopoly suggests sovereignty.
Jones et al, p11 The De Facto Theory concerning political obligation proposes that if the State wields power and monopolises the use of physical force successfully, then individuals are politically obligated to obey the State.
Membership of international bodies such as the European Union and United Nations offers recognition of the British State. Nonetheless, moral questions can be raised regarding this theory. The monopolisation of physical force can result in regimes.
This voluntary, but formal agreement of obligation justifies State law.
However, it can be argued that no social contract exists, as no one actually signs an agreement to obey by State rule. The notion of a social contract was influential in political philosophy particularly during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Hobbes, Rousseau and Locke advocated the idea that an authoritarian State was originally developed from an agreement between the rulers and citizens. The social contract theories are central to the argument that surrounds justification of State control.
Hobbes writes in Leviathan: Inequality would be counter-balanced by preventative actions to ensure survival. This show of strength would be reflected in feelings of glory as power earns respect from others. In addition, he presupposes that individuals would be subservient in order to feel secure.
Furthermore, he believes that the State and the individual would enjoy an equal degree of satisfaction in the knowledge that a social contract justifies State law.(Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau) The Social Contract is a theory that originated during the Enlightenment, which addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.
Rousseau: Government Operations in Civil security of a greater power. As Locke states in safety and comfort, especially with regards to their property. Unlike both Hobbes and Rousseau, Locke does not paint a barbaric and warlike state of nature, instead believing that the natural.
John Locke FRS (/ l ɒ k /; 29 August – 28 October ) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism". Rousseau, Locke, and Hobbes Essay Words | 5 Pages.
grounds of equality, justice, and freedom. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were all members of The Enlightenment movement, and each had their own idea on how .
Freedom, Rights, and Political Philosophy, Part 5. This Hobbesian conception of freedom focuses on individual actors within a social relationship, not on the nature of the relationship as a whole. Similarly, philosophers often spoke of a state of nature, a state of war, and a state of peace.
As Locke put it, “he who makes an attempt. In Locke's view, all rights begin in the individual property interest created by an investment of labor.
The social structure (or "commonwealth") depends for its formation and maintenance on the express consent of those governed by its political powers (the so-called Social Contract or Contractarianism).