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Corresponding arrangements for the school board for London were set out in sections Sections dealt with a range of administrative and financial matters including: In relation to school attendance 74the Act empowered school boards to make by-laws 'Requiring the parents of children of such age, not less than five years nor more than thirteen years, as may be fixed by the byelaws, to cause such children unless there is some reasonable excuse to attend school'.
Boards were also empowered to determine the time during which children were to attend school with exceptions for religious observance ; and to pay all or part of the school fees of any child whose parents were in poverty. The remainder of Part I of the Act covered various technical and administrative matters.
Part II of the Act, dealing with the parliamentary grant, stated that: After the thirty-first day of March one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one no parliamentary grant shall be made to any elementary school which is not a public elementary school within the meaning of this Act.
No parliamentary grant shall be made in aid of building, enlarging, improving, or fitting up any elementary school, except in pursuance of a memorial duly signed, and containing the information required by the Education Department for enabling them to decide on the application, and sent to the Education Department on or before the thirty-first day of December one thousand eight hundred and seventy.
Finally, section required the Education Department to provide an annual report to Parliament. There were five Schedules to the Act, dealing with various administrative matters.
The church problem The dual system - of voluntary and board schools - created by the Act was 'an untidy compromise', but it did represent 'another step towards secularization and state control' Stephens The 'Cowper-Temple clause' pronounced 'Cooper-Temple' in section 14 of the Act 'No religious catechism or religious formulary which is distinctive of any particular denomination shall be taught in the school' was named after its proposer, Liberal MP William Cowper-Temple It banned denominational teaching in the new board schools.
But in other respects, the Act failed to resolve the problem of the involvement of the churches in state educational provision. It could have begun to separate church and state, as was happening in other countries.
The churches had not been able to make universal provision, so the state would now fund schools managed by locally elected and interdenominationally representative school boards.
Church schools would continue to receive a maintenance grant of up to fifty per cent, but once the system was in place they would get no money for new buildings. Some assumed that the Act would result in a gradual decline in the number of church schools and their replacement by board schools.
The churches, however, were determined to strengthen and consolidate their position, so they took full advantage of the generous offer of government funds for new buildings. In the six months allowed, the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church 'moved with great alacrity to plan as many as they could' Gates Two thousand requests for building grants were made by the National Society, five hundred by the Catholic and Free Churches.
In just fifteen years, the number of Church of England schools rose from 6, to 11, and Catholic schools from to In the same period, the number of children attending church schools doubled to two million. The cost of sustaining this expanded provision was huge.
During the s the number of voluntary schools fell by over there were 14, inwhile the number of board schools rose by almost a thousand.
Some church leaders complained about what they saw as the unfair financial advantages enjoyed by the board schools. In Roman Catholic Cardinal Manning declared that the administration of the Act was 'open to the censure of inequality and injustice' quoted in Armytage The Church of England - to its shame - even sought to undermine the new system by attempting to prevent the election of school boards.
For more on this issue see The School Boards below. Mundella understood the motive behind these attacks and wrote to a friend: I keep screwing up [ie improving] the quality of education and insist on the quantity being ample, and all this makes increased and increasing demands upon the voluntary system, and brings the poorer school gradually in the hands of the board.
That is the real reason for Manning's outcry quoted in Armytage In June the National Society sent a memorandum to Gladstone asking for assistance. Mundella wrote to Lord Carlingford, Lord President of the Council, to warn him of the danger of acceding to their demands: I have felt now for more than a year past that this demand would be made.
Cardinal Manning and Canon Gregory have struck up an arrangement in which they have endeavoured, but unsuccessfully, to include the Wesleyans to agitate for increased grants to voluntary schools. A series of articles have appeared in the Nineteenth Century from the pens of these two ecclesiastics making out the best case they can for their claims.
These have been very effectively replied to by the Rev. Dale of Birmingham, who not only showed with great force and clearness the injustice of the demand, but also the consequences likely to follow upon it, viz.
I am sincerely anxious for educational progress and I believe we shall best secure this by the maintenance of the compromise of I am confident, however, that any attempt to depart from this compromise, any attempt to share the rates or differentiate the grants made to voluntary or board schools, would plunge us into a bitter agitation, viz.
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Oshima & Hogue MATERIALS: The English Language Institute awards scholarships to the Top 6 Students at the end of every quarter. Students should carefully review each instructor’s syllabus to make sure they understand the attendance policy and the consequences for missing.
The education of the working class. Before , elementary education was provided largely by the Church of England's National Society and the nonconformist British and Foreign School Society.
Longman academic writing series 4. career essay how to find a dissertation topic fairytale writing paper Scholarship introduction essay examples. The links between paragraphs read the article, somewhat too late to recommend a stronger theory of religious thought, whereas the everyday and routine organization of law stories from everyday.
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