These portions include the visible region, parts of the ultraviolet region, and most of the radio-frequency region. The ability to place instruments on a spacecraft operating above the atmosphere see satellite observatory opened the possibility of observing the universe in all regions of the spectrum. Even operating in the visible region, a space-based observatory could avoid the problems caused by atmospheric turbulence and airglow.
Launched by General Electric Company, this Bumper was used primarily for testing rocket systems and for research on the upper atmosphere.
They carried small payloads that allowed them to measure attributes including air temperature and cosmic ray impacts. The highest known projectiles prior to the rockets of the s were the shells of the Paris Guna type of German long-range siege gunwhich reached at least 40 kilometers altitude during World War One.
After the war, the U. The first scientific exploration from space was the cosmic radiation experiment launched by the U. Starting inthe Soviets, also with the help of German teams, launched sub-orbital V-2 rockets and their own variant, the R-1including radiation and animal experiments on some flights.
These suborbital experiments only allowed a very short time in space which limited their usefulness. The first successful orbital launch was of the Soviet uncrewed Sputnik 1 "Satellite 1" mission on 4 October Analysis of the radio signals was used to gather information about the electron density of the ionosphere, while temperature and pressure data was encoded in the duration of radio beeps.
The results indicated that the satellite was not punctured by a meteoroid. Sputnik 1 was launched by an R-7 rocket. It burned up upon re-entry on 3 January The second one was Sputnik 2. This success led to an escalation of the American space programwhich unsuccessfully attempted to launch a Vanguard satellite into orbit two months later.
On 31 Januarythe U. First human flights[ edit ] The first successful human spaceflight was Vostok 1 "East 1"carrying year-old Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on 12 April The spacecraft completed one orbit around the globe, lasting about 1 hour and 48 minutes. Gagarin's flight resonated around the world; it was a demonstration of the advanced Soviet space program and it opened an entirely new era in space exploration: Valentina Tereshkovathe first woman in space, orbited Earth 48 times aboard Vostok 6 on 16 June China first launched a person into space 42 years after the launch of Vostok 1, on 15 Octoberwith the flight of Yang Liwei aboard the Shenzhou 5 Divine Vessel 5 spacecraft.
First planetary explorations[ edit ] The first artificial object to reach another celestial body was Luna 2 in Luna 10 became the first artificial satellite of the Moon.
The first successful interplanetary flyby was the Mariner 2 flyby of Venus closest approach 34, kilometers. The other planets were first flown by in for Mars by Mariner 4for Jupiter by Pioneer 10for Mercury by Mariner 10for Saturn by Pioneer 11for Uranus by Voyager 2for Neptune by Voyager 2.Sep 30, · Why Translunar Space?
Translunar space is vast expanse surrounding the Earth-moon system, extending far beyond the moon’s orbit and dominated by the two bodies’ gravity fields. Exploring in translunar space, beyond the protection of the Earth’s geomagnetic field, will provide unprecedented experience in deep-space operations.
Our galaxy alone contains hundreds of billions of stars, giving scientists a vast cosmic frontier to search. Could alien life be looking up at its own sky and asking, "Is there life out there?". Modern space exploration is reaching areas once only dreamed about.
Mars is focal point of modern space exploration, and manned Mars exploration is a long-term goal of the United States.
NASA is on a journey to Mars, with a goal of sending humans to the Red Planet in the s. Exploring the Planets The history and achievements of planetary explorations, both Earth-based and by spacecraft.
A single large spacecraft hangs in the center of this gallery: a full-scale replica of a Voyager, two of which blazed a trail of discovery through the outer solar system.
Oct 30, · Supermoon, Blood Moon, Blue Moon and Harvest Moon. Learn about the different names we have for a full moon! explore. Nov 16, · Learn about how we use light-years to measure the distance of objects in space. explore; What Is a Nebula?
A nebula is a cloud of dust and gas in space. How many solar systems are in our galaxy? Astronomers have discovered 2, so far, but there are likely to be many more!.