Americas - Egypt Meso-America and South America, when compared to Egypt, have tons of differences and similarities of which both play a very important role in the making of these cultures and societies. These differences and similarities create a form of community that makes everything about the Meso-American, South American, and Egyptian cultures very special. The most universal similarity found among all three of these cultures is the role of the woman in society. Women had very little or no freedom and were generally the keepers of the household and took care of family needs.
For the first time, they began to produce food in a systematic way rather than hunt or collect all their food in the wild. The emergence of farming and the far-reaching social and cultural changes that came with it sets Big Era Three apart from the first two.
Early Complex Societies Only after about BCE did truly staggering changes occur in social customs and institutions. The complex societies that arose in the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile, and Indus valleys, and somewhat later in other regions, were cauldrons of . All of the societies were patriarchal, but women obtained more rights and places in society in Egypt than in Mesopotamia and Harappan society. In Egypt, women were able to gain high positions through their family members and often achieved power through their status as advisors to their sons or husbands. Early Societies in the Americas and the Oceania Chapter 5: Early Societies in the Americas and the Oceania Read pages in your course book. Read pages on your textbook.
From one perspective, the advent of farming was a slow, fragmented process. It happened independently in several different parts of the world at different times. It occurred as a result of people making thousands of minute decisions about food production without anyone being conscious that humans were "inventing agriculture.
From another perspective we might argue that agriculture took the world by storm. The Paleolithic era of hominin and human tool-making went on for about two million years. Farming settlements, however, appeared on all the major landmasses except Australia within a mere 8, years.
Foraging societies may have retreated gradually, but today, just 12, years after the first signs of agriculture, they have all but disappeared. We may define farming as a set of interrelated activities that increase the production of those resources that humans can use, such as cattle, grain, or flax, and reduce the production of things humans cannot use, such as weeds or pests.
In order to increase the production of resources they can use, farmers systematically manipulate their environment, removing those species they do not want and creating conditions that allow the species they favor to flourish. Thus, we plow and water the land so that our crops can thrive, and we provide food and protection to the animals we need.
This is why the emergence of societies based on agriculture, what we call agrarian societiesinvolved a complex interplay of plants, animals, topography, climate, and weather with human tools, techniques, social habits, and cultural understandings.
The fundamental technological element of this interplay was domesticationthe ability to alter the genetic makeup of plants and animals to make them more useful to humans. Scholars have traditionally labeled the early millennia of agriculture the Neolithic era meaning "new stone age"because humans developed a more varied and sophisticated kit of stone tools in connection with the emergence of farming.
Systematic food production contributed hugely to the amazing biological success of Homo sapiens. In our discussion of Big Era Twowe introduced the concept of extensificationthe idea that in Paleolithic times humans multiplied and flourished by spreading thinly across the major landmasses of the world excepting Antarctica and by adapting to a wide range of environments, from equatorial forests to Arctic tundra.
In Big Era Three, however, a process of " intensification " got under way. This meant that by producing resources from domesticated plants and animals, humans could settle and thrive on a given land area in much greater numbers and density than ever before.
The consequences of intensification were astonishing. In the 9, years of Big Era Three, world population rose from about 6 million to about million, a change involving a much faster rate of increase than in the previous eras.
Humans and the Environment Scholars generally agree that foragers of the Paleolithic enjoyed, at least much of the time, sufficient food supplies, adequate shelter, and shorter daily working hours than most adults do today.These early population densities led to the development of the first complex societies.
These early states needed to maintain order and distribute resources in order to survive. Humans began to sail across more open oceans as .
Early Societies in the Americas and the Oceania Chapter 5: Early Societies in the Americas and the Oceania Read pages in your course book. Read pages on your textbook. 5. Southwest Asia: Ancient Mesopotamia and Its Neighbors. 6.
The Nile Valley of Egypt. 7. The Aegean Bronze Age and the Classical World. 8. The Indus Valley Civilization. 9. Ancient Chinese Civilizations. Empires in Southeast Asia.
The Mississippian System in the American Bottom. Ancient Mesoamerican Cultures. Andean Civilizations and Empires. Humans began to gather around sources of water (circumscription).
These early population densities led to the development of the first complex societies. These early states needed to maintain order and distribute resources in order to survive. Humans began to sail across more open oceans as global wind patterns became less intense. A complex society is a concept that is shared by a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, history and sociology to describe a stage of social formation.
The concept was formulated by scholars attempting to understand how modern states emerged, specifically the transition from small kin-based societies to large . The Emergence of Complex Societies: A Comparative Approach David L. Toye Northeast State Community College Introduction One of the more daunting tasks facing instructors and students of world history is the effort to survey the rise of a great variety of "civilizations" or complex societies in different regions of the globe.