Are faces special

Explanations[ edit ] A simple collection of lines can be quickly perceived as a face, and even be interpreted as expressing a particular emotion Pareidolia can cause people to interpret random images, or patterns of light and shadow, as faces. This activation is similar to a slightly faster time ms that is seen for images of real faces. The authors suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a relatively early process, and not a late cognitive reinterpretation phenomenon.

Are faces special

Development[ edit ] From birthinfants possess rudimentary facial processing capacities and show heightened interest in faces. Specifically, while newborns show a preference for faces, this behavior is reduced between one- to four months of age. The re-emergence of a preference for faces at three months of age may be influenced by the child's own motor abilities and experiences.

Five-month-olds, when presented with an image of a person making a fearful expression and a person making a happy expression, pay the same amount of attention to and exhibit similar event-related potentials ERPs for both.

However, when seven-month-olds are given the same treatment, they focus more on the fearful face, and their event-related potential for the scared face shows a stronger initial negative central component than that for the happy face.

This result indicates an increased attentional and cognitive focus toward fear that reflects the threat -salient nature of the emotion. Jeffrey and Rhodes [13] write that faces "convey a wealth of information that we use to guide our social interactions". The perception of a positive or negative emotion on a face affects the Are faces special that an individual perceives and processes that face.

For example, a face that is perceived to have a negative emotion is processed in a less holistic manner than a face displaying a positive emotion. The neurological mechanisms responsible Are faces special face recognition are present by age five.

Research shows that the way children process faces is similar to that of adults, but adults process faces more efficiently. The reason for this may be because of advancements in memory and cognitive functioning that occur with age.

At seven months, the object of an observed face's apparent emotional reaction is relevant in processing the face. Infants at this age show greater negative central components to angry faces that are looking directly at them than elsewhere, although the direction of fearful faces' gaze produces no difference.

In addition, two ERP components in the posterior part of the brain are differently aroused by the two negative expressions tested. These results indicate that infants at this age can at least partially understand the higher level of threat from anger directed at them as compared to anger directed elsewhere.

Seven-month-olds will look to facial cues to understand the motives of other people in ambiguous situations, as shown by a study in which they watched an experimenter's face longer if she took a toy from them and maintained a neutral expression than if she made a happy expression. Training three-month-old infants to reach for objects with Velcro -covered "sticky mitts" increases the amount of attention that they pay to faces as compared to passively moving objects through their hands and non-trained control groups.

When presented with a happy or angry face, shortly followed by an emotionally neutral word read in a happy or angry tone, their ERPs follow different patterns. Happy faces followed by angry vocal tones produce more changes than the other incongruous pairing, while there was no such difference between happy and angry congruous pairings, with the greater reaction implying that infants held greater expectations of a happy vocal tone after seeing a happy face than an angry tone following an angry face.

Considering an infant's relative immobility and thus their decreased capacity to elicit negative reactions from their parents, this result implies that experience has a role in building comprehension of facial expressions.

Being shown photographs of macaques during this three-month period gave nine-month-olds the ability to reliably distinguish between unfamiliar macaque faces.

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Faces can tell things such as identity, mood, age, sex, race, and the direction that someone is looking. The face inversion effect provides behavioral support of a specialized mechanism as people tend to have greater deficits in task performance when prompted to react to an inverted face than to an inverted object.

Electrophysiological support comes from the finding that the N and M responses tend to be face-specific. Neuro-imaging studies such as PET and fMRI studies have shown support for a specialized facial processing mechanism as they have identified regions of the fusiform gyrus that have higher activation during face perception tasks than other visual perception tasks.

Novel optical illusions such as the Flashed Face Distortion Effectin which scientific phenomenology outpaces neurological theory, also provide areas for research. One of the most widely accepted theories of face perception argues that understanding faces involves several stages:Sep 12,  · With their first soccer practices being completed this week, Special Olympics has officially begun their year.

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Are faces special

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Are Faces Special? - Oxford Handbooks