When an electron beam impinges on a solid surface, it loses energy primarily by electron-electron interactions. In those interactions, the energy gained by electrons in the solid is often sufficient to ionize them; the electrons thus ionized are called secondary electrons SE. The interactions of a primary electron with the solid are classed as elastic energy-conserving and inelastic energy non-conserving.
The mass media Newspapersradiotelevisionand the Internet —including e-mail and blog s—are usually less influential than the social environmentbut they are still significant, especially in affirming attitudes and opinions that are already established.
Just before an electionfor example, voters who earlier had only a mild preference for one party or candidate may be inspired by media coverage not only to take the trouble to vote but perhaps also to contribute money or to help a party organization in some other way.
The mass media play another important role by letting individuals know what other people think and by giving political leaders large audiences. In this way the media make it possible for public opinion to encompass large numbers of individuals and wide geographic areas.
It appears, in fact, that in some European countries the growth of broadcasting, especially television, affected the operation of the parliamentary system.
Before television, national elections were seen largely as contests between a number of candidates or parties for parliamentary seats. As the electronic media grew more sophisticated technologically, elections increasingly assumed the appearance of a personal struggle between the leaders of the principal parties concerned.
In the United States, presidential candidates have come to personify their parties. Once in office, a president can easily appeal to a national audience over the heads of elected legislative representatives.
In areas where the mass media are thinly spread, as in developing countries or in countries where the media are strictly controlled, word of mouth can sometimes perform the same functions as the press and broadcasting, though on a more limited scale. In developing countries, it is common for those who are literate to read from newspapers to those who are not, or for large numbers of persons to gather around the village radio or a community television.
Word of mouth in the marketplace or neighbourhood then carries the information farther. In countries where important news is suppressed by the government, a great deal of information is transmitted by rumour.
Word of mouth or other forms of person-to-person communicationsuch as text messaging thus becomes the vehicle for underground public opinion in totalitarian countries, even though these processes are slower and usually involve fewer people than in countries where the media network is dense and uncontrolled.
Interest groups Interest group s, nongovernmental organization s NGOsreligious groups, and labour unions trade union s cultivate the formation and spread of public opinion on issues of concern to their constituencies.
Highlights this week: BRATTON Council candidates capers and new endorsements, Circle Church territory and development, Ocean Extension news and plea, Thomas Pynchon’s Aptos house. For all weight classes except Peewee, individual eggs are subject to a weight minimum: no egg must be so light that a dozen of the lightest would weigh less than one ounce below the minimum. AS WE EXPLORE a sampling of Hitler’s early views on the Jews, we shall discover striking parallels to conditions existing in our own day. Jewish propagandists would have us believe that Hitler’s unfavorable attitude toward Jewry was based solely on a “racial” hostility between Aryans and the.
These groups may be concerned with political, economic, or ideological issues, and most work through the mass media as well as by word of mouth. Some of the larger or more affluent interest groups around the world make use of advertising and public relations.
One increasingly popular tactic is the informal poll or straw vote. Multiple votes by supporters are often encouraged, and once the group releases its findings to credible media outlets, it claims legitimacy by citing the publication of its poll in a recognized newspaper or online news source.
Reasons for conducting unscientific polls range from their entertainment value to their usefulness in manipulating public opinion, especially by interest groups or issue-specific organizations, some of which exploit straw-poll results as a means of making their causes appear more significant than they actually are.
On any given issue, however, politicians will weigh the relatively disinterested opinions and attitudes of the majority against the committed values of smaller but more-dedicated groups for whom retribution at the ballot box is more likely.
Opinion leaders Opinion leaders play a major role in defining popular issues and in influencing individual opinions regarding them.
Political leaders in particular can turn a relatively unknown problem into a national issue if they decide to call attention to it in the media. One of the ways in which opinion leaders rally opinion and smooth out differences among those who are in basic agreement on a subject is by inventing symbols or coining slogans: Once enunciated, symbols and slogans are frequently kept alive and communicated to large audiences by the mass media and may become the cornerstone of public opinion on any given issue.
Opinion leadership is not confined to prominent figures in public life. An opinion leader can be any person to whom others look for guidance on a certain subject. Thus, within a given social group one person may be regarded as especially well-informed about local politics, another as knowledgeable about foreign affairs, and another as expert in real estate.
These local opinion leaders are generally unknown outside their own circle of friends and acquaintances, but their cumulative influence in the formation of public opinion is substantial.
The same is true with regard to changes in public opinion. Some public opinions can be explained by specific events and circumstances, but in other cases the causes are more elusive. Some opinions, however, are predictable: Hostile public attitudes do not cause poor relations—they are the result of them.
People presumably change their own attitudes when they no longer seem to correspond with prevailing circumstances and, hence, fail to serve as guides to action. Similarly, a specific event, such as a natural disaster or a human tragedy, can heighten awareness of underlying problems or concerns and trigger changes in public opinion.
It is nonetheless the case that whether a body of public opinion on a given issue is formed and sustained depends to a significant extent on the attention it receives in the mass media. Al Gore in An Inconvenient Truth During the second half of the 20th century in many parts of the world, attitudes toward religionfamily, sex, international relationssocial welfare, and the economy underwent major shifts.
Although important issues have claimed public attention in all these areas, the scope of change in public attitudes and opinions is difficult to attribute to any major event or even to any complex of events.How and Why I Taught My Toddler to Read.
By Larry Sanger. [email protected] Version , revised December 14, Published online December 13, Highlights this week: BRATTON Council candidates capers and new endorsements, Circle Church territory and development, Ocean Extension news and plea, Thomas Pynchon’s Aptos house.
AS WE EXPLORE a sampling of Hitler’s early views on the Jews, we shall discover striking parallels to conditions existing in our own day. Jewish propagandists would have us believe that Hitler’s unfavorable attitude toward Jewry was based solely on a “racial” hostility between Aryans and the.
Mass media is communication that is to a large group, or groups, of people in a short time (Mass Media, , p.1). This can be written, spoken or broadcast communication.
Some of the most popular forms of mass media are newspapers, magazines, radio, advertisements, social media. Mass media has had both positive and negative effects on people, especially young people who have grown up consuming media from many different mediums. Mass media has made information available to more people more quickly, and it has enabled individuals to .
Public opinion - The mass media: Newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet—including e-mail and blogs—are usually less influential than the social environment, but they are still significant, especially in affirming attitudes and opinions that are already established.